November in the Archives

November is always a month of elections and Thanksgiving. Going with that theme, this month’s “in the Archives” post is going to focus on the papers of a politician and of a Native American.

Of the 130 catalog records we created in November, three relate to the papers of Roger Sherman. Sherman, a native of Massachusetts, moved to Connecticut in his early twenties. Over the years he had several occupations, including store owner, surveyor, lawyer, and mayor of New Haven, Connecticut. Sherman is also well known for his participation in the formation of the government of the United States. He is the only person to have signed all four of the following: the United States Declaration of Independence, the Articles of Association, the Articles of Confederation, and the United States Constitution.

Sherman’s governmental work is evident in his 1779 diary (Ms68355). A small almanac, the pages opposite each month’s calendar served as notepaper for Sherman (this was a common practice). Some have notes about taxes and the Continental Treasury. There are also more mundane notes, such as the amount of butter he purchased.

In his role as Clerk of the First Ecclesiastical Society in New Milford, Sherman signed a certificate (Ms 80283) in December 1754 certifying the process of the construction of a new meeting house. The certificate describes the frame (sixty by forty-three feet), notes that the roof had been added, and mentions the tax that will be levied on the citizens of the town to finance the construction.

Also cataloged this month are a letter and a writ signed by Sherman, one dated July 1781 and the other September 1782 (Ms 44831). The letter, dated 1781, was sent to John Lawrence, Esq. and provides an account of the surrender of the British in Augusta, Georgia. Sherman signed the 1782 writ as a justice on the Connecticut Supreme Court. It was summoning Alling and Huldah Carrington to appear before the court “to hear read, the Record, Process of Judgment had & rendered in a certain Cause” between the Carringtons and Asa Huntington.

Roger Sherman diary

Roger Sherman diary, 1779, Ms 68355. Connecticut Historical Society, Hartford, CT

Gladys Tantaquidgeon was a medicine woman and active member of the Mohegan tribe. She studied anthropology at the University of Pennsylvania and published about Native Americans and medicine. The University of Connecticut and Yale University both awarded Tantaquidgeon honorary doctorates for her accomplishments. Among the many honors she received, Tantaquidgeon has also been inducted into the Connecticut Women’s Hall of Fame. Other jobs she held include working with the Commissioner of Indian Affairs and librarian at the Niantic (Connecticut) Women’s Prison.

In 1933 Tantaquidgeon, in association with the University of Pennsylvania, compiled an eight page document detailing the designs of Mohegan-Pequot basketry (Ms 44083). She described the types of baskets, materials, techniques, and design elements. The paper includes three pages of drawings of the designs used. Among our museum collections we have a number of baskets made by members of Tantaquidgeon’s family.


Basket, 1860-1880, 1950.479.0, Connecticut Historical Society collections.

The basket and the manuscripts are all available for research. Come visit! While you are here, or from the comfort of your home, buy a membership for yourself or someone else on your holiday gift list. Memberships, some of our recent publications, and other items are available for purchase through our store.

A look back

We tend to use the holiday season as an excuse for many things — overeating, overspending. Today I am going to use it as an excuse to talk about a printed document, one that is not part of our project. Fear not! There is at least one tie-in.  It is also a time of year for looking back. So in the spirit of “Auld Lang Syne,” I bring you The Courant Almanac for 1880.

1880 Almanac

The Courant Almanac for 1880, Almanac collection, Connecticut Historical Society, Hartford, Connecticut.

The Hartford Courant is the country’s oldest newspaper in continuous publication. This past fall the paper celebrated its 245th birthday. CHS’s Diana McCain, Head of the Research Center, and Rich Malley, Head of Collections, were on hand for the festivities. They brought with them an original copy of the Courant’s first issue (there are many reproductions available).

In the late 19th century the Courant published an annual almanac. Many local businesses advertised in the almanac, including Aetna Insurance Company, The Hartford Fire Insurance Company (which will celebrate its bicentennial in 2010), and The Travelers Life and Accident Insurance Company.  One advertisement in the 1880 edition is for Neptune Cord and Twine Mills. Back in January I processed, and created a record for, CHS’s Neptune collection. Ads in the 1880 Courant Almanac

One of several cotton and twine mills in the area, Neptune was originally known as Higgins and Card. It later became Card and Company, and finally Neptune Twine and Cord Mills (or Cord and Twine Mills). The business was handed down from Stanton Card to his son-in-law, Emory Johnson and then to his grandson, E. Emory Johnson. The company consisted of two mills, the upper and lower. The lower was built by Card and later renamed the Neptune. Johnson built the upper in 1862. Following E. Emory Johnson’s death in 1905, the company was sold out of the family. Most recently the land on which the mills operated has become a Connecticut State Park (Machimoodus State Park). Business records, primarily from the 1960s when the firm was owned by Raymond Schmitt, can be found in the boxes. The 155 volumes consist of Account Books, Blotters, Daybooks, Journals, Ledgers, Production Records, and Time Books. The volumes date from 1814 to 1956. The collection also includes some miscellaneous items, including the shipping account book of James Cone, likely a neighbor of the Card – Johnson family. (Ms# 95860)

Reading this almanac it is clear some things have changed in the past 130 years. The ad opposite Neptune’s is for a butter store. They boast the “finest alderney creameries,” certainly not something we see too often these days. In addition to advertisements, the almanac included a list of the state’s elected officials, stories, and monthly calendars. The illustration opposite the almanac’s January calendar, though, depicts the Instrument Room of the Storm and Weather Signal Service Bureau in Washington, DC. We certainly have not lost our obsession with weather watching!

January 1880

Weather illustration

A piece about camping, printed opposite the May calendar, offers the following advice. “Treat all with whom you come in contact with courtesy; the good-will of a dog is better than his ill-will. Leave all chronic grumblers, and those not willing to make the best of everything, at home. Exception — one such in a party will be found endurable as a butt.”

Among the stories we can read about the personification of oysters. Apparently they do not like the letter ‘R’ (middle of the right column, just above the Household Recipes).

Stories in the Almanac

This coming year CHS will celebrate its 185th year of inspiring and fostering  “a life-long interest in history through exhibitions, programs and Connecticut-related collections”. We hope you will join us!